3D Computer Animation
2022/23 | Conestoga College
Program Code: 1391
Conestoga College Institute of Technology and Advanced Learning
This is a companion document to the current Conestoga College Student Guide
COVID-19 and Academic Program Delivery
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, Conestoga academic plans and decisions will continue to evolve to reflect the advice of public health authorities. Please consult the COVID-19 Information page for the most up-to-date information on college protocols.
Expectations regarding course delivery, participation, and assessments will be communicated by your faculty member at the start of the semester and included in the instructional plan.
Program technology requirements are posted on the program web page. Students in hybrid delivery courses will require a device, webcam functionality, and reliable Internet access.
Program Handbook Guidelines
The purpose of this handbook is to provide students with program-specific details and other important information. The material in this handbook is accurate at the date of posting and is applicable for the current academic year. Students will be informed of handbook changes that occur, if any, through college email. Program handbooks are updated yearly, and students must check their program handbook for the current edition.
This handbook must be read in conjunction with general information about Conestoga College found on the website and in the Student Guide. The information in the Student Guide and on the college website applies to all students, regardless of program.
Conestoga offers a wide range of programs to set you on the right path toward building an exciting career in the creative economy. Our certificates, diplomas, advanced diplomas, degrees, and graduate certificates will prepare you for your future by providing you with hands-on applied learning and work-integrated educational opportunities.
Our high-quality faculty, technologists, and support staff will help you gain a competitive edge with their extensive industry experience and our first-class facilities, labs, studios and learning spaces will enhance your education and provide you with authentic environments for learning.
What you do here…counts out there; and what you do in our School will prepare you for an exciting future in the dynamic world of creative industries.
Pejman Salehi, PhD
Dean, School of Creative Industries
Program Staff Contact Information
Phone: ext. 2320
In addition, other faculty will work with students for the duration of this program. (i.e faculty from other schools for breadth and/or general education courses, as well as faculty with particular expertise in specific areas of program focus).
Program Support Team
Placement and Community Liaison Officer
Manager, Educational and Broadcast Technology
Computer animation has evolved to become a major component in the field of animation production and contributes towards shaping content for film, television, games and online applications. As such, students must be actively engaged in all aspects of the production process and understand the requirements associated with the production pipeline. Traditional design, drawing and storytelling skills are enhanced via the latest computer (software/hardware), combined with 3D animation skills and the creation of characters and customized environments contribute towards the creation of unique content that graduates will utilize in their e-portfolio of project work.Program Design
Students can find their program design on the Student Portal by following the steps below:
- Log in to Student Portal
- Click on 'My Courses' tab
- Select 'View Progress Report' button
Program Learning Outcomes
- Design visual effects sequences using storyboarding and pre-visualization that meet production requirements.
- Communicate effectively with colleagues and clients throughout all stages of production.
- Complete the production of live action plates for use in visual effects.
- Manage the planning, implementation and production of animation and visual effects projects to meet production schedules.
- Select appropriate hardware and software protocols specific to the field of visual effects.
- Analyze images and physical sets to digitally re-create lights, cameras, locations and objects.
- Create photo-real images to match live action footage.
- Recreate natural phenomena by using appropriate particle or dynamic effects and the principles of performance theory.
- Integrate 2D and/or 3D computer generated imagery and live action elements.
- Create customized tools through software or scripting to allow for more advanced application of visual effects techniques.
- Work collaboratively in interdisciplinary teams on the production of visual effects.
- Assemble digital assets such as background, environment, characters and objects, according to project brief using production pipeline methodologies.
- Present an e-portfolio of animation projects that highlights one's creativity, animation skills and proficiency with relevant 3D- animation technologies.
Attending post-secondary and completing studies can be exciting, but at the same demanding. Juggling school and life will no doubt be stressful at times. Stress is a normal aspect of life. How you handle stress can make a difference. If you're feeling overwhelmed at any time, talking to someone helps! A conversation with your Faculty or Program Coordinator can help identify and alleviate stress associated with assignments or course content. For more serious stress-related issues, Conestoga also offers free counseling services to students. At Doon Campus, Counselors are located on the lower level, between the atrium and the cafeteria – across the hall from the Doctors' office.
If your stress is caused by health issues that are getting in the way of your academics, notify Faculty, and seek help, as soon as possible.
Communication and Emailing Requirements
Conestoga College student email accounts are used for all official communication with students. Students are expected to regularly check their student email accounts. Faculty are not expected to respond to emails from non-Conestoga email addresses.
Faculty and staff are only expected to communicate through your educational/professional profile as it relates to a specific course project and or assignment. All official course information is to be communicated through the use of Conestoga College e-mail. All students and Faculty are assigned a Conestoga e-mail account. Students are expected to regularly check their student email accounts. Students cannot count on Faculty responding to emails from non-Conestoga email addresses.
Social Media Use and Considerations
As part of the School of Creative Industries you will have courses that require you to use Social Media as a professional tool. As such students are expected to separate their personal Social Media use from their educational and professional use. One of the easiest ways to do this is to create a separate profile for school and career.
If you are working with School of Creative Industries or your program's social media or web-related platforms, all posts and up-dates must be done in a professional manner adhering to the guidelines below.
Ensure that your posts reflect you as the professional you are and wish to become – if a potential employer were to see your posts!
When using any Conestoga College or School of Creative Industries Social media accounts, including ones used for specific programs (such as Spoke Online), all posts must be professional, respectful and non-defamatory.
Assume that information you post or send can be accessed or altered by anyone.
Consider whether any posting may reflect poorly on you, your school, or your profession.
Avoid online criticism about other students, colleagues, professors or field placements.
Avoid impulsive, inappropriate or heated comments.
Pictures should not be taken, posted to social media sites, or shared without the express permission of all individuals involved.
Pictures and posts related to field placement and lab activities should only be made with permission of the supervisor involved.
Remember that online sites you visit are not anonymous.
Make sure your on-line name and e-mail reflect professionalism.
Ensure that your postings will not be considered harassment or defamation of a peer, colleague, Faculty or others.
Many types of social media encourage instantaneous, casual dialogue. It is important to remember that even an innocent comment may be easily misunderstood.
"Electronic messages are not anonymous. They can be tracked, misdirected, manipulated and live forever on the internet. Social media sites create and archive copies of every piece of content posted, even when deleted from on-line profiles. Once information is digitalized, the author relinquishes all control."
"Online identities and actions are visible to the public and can result in serious repercussions or embarrassment. As the Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Ontario notes, users may intend to share their online existence solely within their own network, but in theory anyone can access the user's musings, photos and information. Further, the words can be altered, forwarded and misquoted.*
*Professional Advisory. 2017. Maintaining Professionalism- Use of Electronic Communication and Social Media. The Council of the Ontario College of Teachers.NON- COMPLIANCE:
Failure to comply with the social media policies will result in disciplinary action, and may jeopardize your progression in the program. Students may be asked to meet with the Academic Chair and/or Vice President of Student Affairs. In addition, students who breach the social media policy will not be allowed on the College's public-facing platforms for a period of time.
Please respect the fact that your Faculty and staff will not invite you to their personal web pages when you are a current student (Keep Faculty and staff as resources to connect with after you have graduated or after you have left the college)
Use of Electronic Devices in Classrooms and Labs
Electronic devices may be used for learning or instructional purposes. Professors or Technologists may request devices be put away when a safety issue or distraction occurs. Devices used for accommodations are always welcome. Use of an unauthorized device in a testing situation will result in an academic offence and a mark of zero.
Figure Drawing and Life Model Classes
With respect to our figure drawing models, all technical devices (including cell phones) must be kept in your bag or pockets while the model is working. If you need to use your device during the figure drawing session, please leave the room or wait until the break. Use of an unauthorized device in a life drawing class when a model is present may result in an academic offence and a mark of zero.
ProfessionalismOne of the overriding goals of the 3D Computer Animation program at Conestoga is to create and foster a culture of professionalism that will prepare students to function effectively in the workplace.
Though professionalism is a complex and nuanced concept, some useful definitions have been proposed that can guide both students and faculty as we undertake the program of study. The Chief Justice of Ontario Advisory Committee on Professionalism struck a Working Group on the Definition of Professionalism in 2001 and arrived at this simple but provocative definition:
"Professionalism as a personal characteristic is revealed in an attitude and approach to an occupation that is commonly characterized by intelligence, integrity, maturity, and thoughtfulness" (Chief Justice of Ontario Advisory Committee on Professionalism, 2002, p. 1).The lectures, activities and assessments that comprise the program curriculum are designed to foster in students an intelligent and informed approach to 3D computer animation. The high standards for academic integrity described elsewhere in this handbook will help to foster continual integrity and ethical standards in the choices you make throughout your career.
3D Animation requires respect, tact, fairness and helpfulness. Course content will reinforce this aspect of the practice.
Use of Cell Phones and Other Devices in Life Drawing Classes
Your participation in a life drawing class is an integral part of your education. Students are expected to participate in the class and behave with maturity and respect.
As a sign of respect to our figure drawing models, all technical devices (including cell phones) must be kept in your bag or pockets while the model is working. If you need to use your device during the figure drawing session, please leave the room or wait until the break.
Standards of Conduct
Academic assistance is available to students through a variety of avenues. The Program Coordinator and/or Student Advisor can advise on specific program and course information, as well as on the supports available at the College. Conestoga's Student Success Services Department can provide assistance with Counselling, Accessible Learning, and Career Services. Visit theStudent Success Serviceswebsite for further information.
Lectures, labs, and the interaction that happens in the classroom, whether on campus or online, are the most important source of the knowledge that will allow you to succeed in your program and, eventually, in your career. The course texts and lecture slides that may be shared with students constitute only a fraction of the learning that is made available in this program. Your attendance in class will allow the professor to observe your maturity and thoughtfulness and assess your professionalism as you interact with others.
Attendance at scheduled tests and exams is mandatory. Failure to attend will result in an automatic F grade on the test or exam, unless the absence is:
- Due to a medical illness, with completion of reporting the absence on the Student Portal (login to your Student Portal at the Conestoga College Home Page and go to the Absences tab)
- Due to an accident, with submission of a police report
- Due to a death in the immediate family, with a copy of the death certificate required.
The Faculty member must be immediately notified and the proper documentation must be presented prior to the start of the next meeting of the class where possible. Please see the Attendance at Evaluations section for further instruction.
Lack of attendance due to work obligations does not constitute an acceptable explanation for your absence. School of Creative Industries programs are demanding and require a considerable commitment of time and energy. Students need to schedule their work around the program and not vice versa.
Working Outside of Scheduled Class TimeWorking outside of scheduled class time is required. Recognize that higher education requires a commitment on your part to completing projects and assignments outside of regularly scheduled class time. In particular, the 3D computer animation and related industries require that you work on course work on weekends and evenings regularly. This is the norm, not an exception.
The work required to achieve strong results in 3D Computer Animation will exceed the time available in class and some concepts may require a good deal of experimentation with the use of the computer software, camera, sound recording equipment, and the constant practice of artistic skills.
Occasionally, this work will be done in teams that necessitate the entire team meeting outside of class time. Your participation is essential. Do not let your team down.
Evaluations (deadlines, tests, examinations)Please see course outlines and instructional plans for details on evaluations.
Late Submissions of Assignments/Projects
PLEASE REFER TO YOUR COURSE OUTLINES AND INSTRUCTIONAL PLANS FOR DETAILS ON EVALUATIONS.
The School of Creative Industries has programs directly associated with industries that require commitment to deadline. As such, it is expected that students adhere to the school's late submission of assignment policy.
All students are expected to submit their assignments on the due date and time specified by their Faculty. If a student fails to do so, the following late assignment policy applies:
- Assignments received on or before the due date and time will be marked out of 100%.
- Assignments received within 24 hours of the due date and time will receive a 20% reduction and be marked out of 80%.
- Assignments received after 24 hours from the initial due date and time will receive a mark of zero (0).
NOTE: Assignments, projects, presentations, quizzes, tests and or exams requiring in-class attendance, scheduling of facilities and participation, and/or participation with a group or an external or industry-based participant must be performed on the assigned date and time. Failure to do so without a substantiated reason will result in a mark of zero (0).
In cases whereby, there is an unsubstantiated late submission of an assignment the student will be awarded a zero (0) grade for the assignment. Students are advised to meet with the respective Faculty member to discuss how the zero grade will impact their overall academic standing. Assignments are posted with reasonable advance notice for students. It is the responsibility of the students to plan ahead to ensure the work is completed on time. It is recommended that students balance commitments and time to account for unforeseen delays.
Substantiated late submissions are as follows:
- Due to accommodation, as arranged through Accessibility or Counselling Services and with the Faculty member well in advance of the submission deadline.
- Due to a medical illness, with completion of reporting the absence on the Student Portal.
- Due to an accident, with submission of a police report.
- Due to a death in the immediate family, with a copy of the death certificate required.
Students must provide the supporting formal documentation with the late submission and submit the items to the appropriate Faculty member, Program Coordinator and/or Student Advisor.
This process ensures that all students within the School of Creative Industries are following academic and industry protocol and are treated fairly and equally in their evaluations.
If you require further information and/or clarification on the process for late submission(s) please contact your Student Advisor or Program Coordinator.
We appreciate that concerns/issues may arise during the learning experience. Our goal is to promote collaboration between students, faculty and staff to resolve situations of concern quickly and to learn and improve from these situations.
Please see the
Student Rights and Responsibilities Policy & Procedure (under the "Student Affairs" tab) for further details on the steps to be followed. Here you will find formal and informal procedures for the resolution of concerns and issues.
If you need assistance or clarification, please contact your Student Advisor.
What is Academic Integrity?
Having academic integrity means acting fairly and honestly when engaging in academic activities.
By having and applying an Academic Offences Policy and Procedure, Conestoga ensures graduates complete their studies fairly and honestly through hard work and dedication, and thus are well-prepared for their future careers.
Conestoga facilitates access to print, media, and electronic resources to support and enrich learning, teaching, and research in compliance with the following:
Plagiarism is submitting or presenting work of another person(s)/organization in whole or substantial part as one's own without proper citation and referencing.
Intellectual Property (IP) under copyright is an extremely important tool within Creative Industries. The proper use of IP is essential and reflects industry and legal standards.
Whether your work appears in print, over the air, online, or in another form, copyright laws apply. These laws also protect the work you produce. Work submitted for assessments and assignments must conform to copyright requirements, unless otherwise stated by Faculty. Elements under copyright can include, but are not limited to, music, text, images, and designs. If in doubt, do not use elements that could be under copyright protection.
You are entering a field in which protection of intellectual property is of paramount concern. Plagiarism involves knowingly presenting someone else's work as your own, be it text, an illustration, photograph, part of a video, audio track or design. If within your assignment non-original work is permitted to be used, you must still credit the source of that work. You can provide this credit through a recognized citation format, like APA, or as directed by your Faculty.
In the School of Creative Industries, we have many assignments centering on your original creative ideas and work. In these cases, purely citing someone else's work will not be enough. You must ensure that your work is original.
Penalties for plagiarism can be severe, and can include receiving an F for the entire course. There are many resources that can help you with proper citation, and help you understand when you can and cannot use other sources as influence for your work.
The mandatory course, Conestoga 101 (which will be one of your first term courses), and modules presented in your classes in the School of Creative Industries will address issues of plagiarism, and the expecations faculty have of you regarding the creation of original work while you are a Conestoga student. If you have questions or concerns regarding your work, please speak to your professor.
For more information about plagiarism and academic integrity, consult the Academic Integrity page from Conestoga College Library Services.
Maintaining Student Files & Sharing Permissions
As a condition of program review and accreditation, the School of Creative Industries is required to retain examples of student coursework in each of the courses of the curriculum. Each student is required to complete the "Permission to Retain Material" form. In doing so, students grant Conestoga permission to retain coursework completed over the duration of the student's enrolment in the Program.
Technology and Social Media in the Classroom
A respectful classroom ensures both students and faculty are able to focus on the lesson. Recording of audio or video, unless a student has a documented disability for which assistive technology is required and defined as an accommodation, is not permitted, without direct consent from faculty.
If you are working with the School of Creative Industries' or your program's social media sites or web-related platforms, all posts and updates must be done in a professional manner.
- Text messaging or phone calls on mobile devices
- Using Facebook or any other on-line social media or video sites
- Listening to recordings without headphones
- Using the computer for anything other than what the instructor is asking for in class time. (Including projects due in other classes)
Students who use these (and other) media tools during class time other than for taking notes may be asked to turn them off, and may even be asked to leave the classroom. Repeated occurrences will result in a meeting with the Faculty and/or Program Coordinator for a possible Student Rights and Responsibilities Policy and Procedure violation.
All School of Creative Industries faculty members utilize a learning management system (LMS) called eConestoga for communication, project submission, and grade calculation.
To sign into eConestoga, use your student number and the password that was set up for the student portal. Each course will have a "shell" represented by a tile on your eConestoga landing page. The shell will contain all of the information about the course, your assignments, and any communication from your professor.
Click on the course shell you wish to check and it will take you to the Course Home Page. On the Course Home Page, you will see News (announcements) for that specific course. The tabs across the top of the page will guide you to the content section where the instructional plan, lecture notes, handouts, and assignments are posted. Under the Help & Guides tab, there are videos and other Student Resources to help you use eConestoga effectively.
It is the student's responsibility to ensure ongoing access to the system through their off-campus devices and to contact IT Services to work out any technical issues.
Accessing class materials via eConestoga is not a substitute for attending class. Materials offered on eConestoga may not be comprehensive and may not make sense to students who have not attended class, whether that class takes place on Campus or is delivered synchronously online. Assignments and tests are based on all class material covered, not just what is posted to eConestoga.
You can find eConestoga by going to the main Conestoga College Home Page, and clicking on the drop down menu that says Login at the top left of the page: Conestoga Homepage, and scrolling down to eConestoga.
Credit Transfer, Pathways & PLAR
Conestoga recognizes you may have formal post-secondary education that may allow you to enter a program at an advanced level or provide for individual course exemptions. To ensure your credits are eligible for transfer, please contact our Credit Transfer Office at: email@example.com.
The Credit Transfer Policy and Procedure are available on the college website.
If you are currently a Conestoga student and want to continue studying at Conestoga, there are a number of different pathway opportunities available to you.
Whether you wish to transfer to another program or apply to a new program after graduation, Conestoga has established pathways, to help you meet your goals.
Conestoga College has articulation agreements with many domestic and international institutions. These agreements allow students to transfer into a specific program with advanced standing. Students must meet the academic requirements stated in the agreement.
For more information regarding pathways at Conestoga, contact the Credit Transfer Officer at 519-748-5220 ext. 2166.
It is the student's responsibility to be aware of various important academic dates throughout the year. These academic dates are posted on the college website.
Please note that Continuing Education courses and Apprenticeship programs may have different start dates and exam dates for courses.
It is strongly recommended that students consult their Program Coordinator and or Student Advisor prior to dropping a course. Some courses have co-requisites and pre-requisites which may be affected by dropping individual courses.
Special Timetables/Adding Dropped or Failed Courses
Please note that when students are not taking the program in the prescribed sequence, they will be on "special timetables". Students must meet with the Program Coordinator or Student Advisor before the beginning of the semester to discuss their timetable.
Students who require longer than the designed program duration to complete their studies are accountable for completing any new or additional courses or requirements that may result due to changes in the program of study. Unless otherwise stated, students registered in non-cohort delivered programs must complete the program of study within seven years of being admitted to the program.
Academic Standing and Promotion
It is the student's responsibility to ensure that all program course requirements for credential completion are fulfilled. Faculty and administrative staff are happy to assist by answering student questions and concerns about progress through the program. If you are having difficulty in a course, be proactive!
A student must pass every course in the program design in order to receive their credential, including field placements, co-ops, and electives, where applicable. Please refer to course outlines for confirmation of the passing grade requirements for each course.
Pre-requisite courses must be successfully completed before taking the subsequent course. Successful completion of all previous level core courses must be achieved before a student may take on their capstone or thesis course.
Should a student fail a course, the student may end up on a special timetable out of sequence with their cohort.
Please contact the Student Advisor or the Program Coordinator if there are questions regarding program progress.
Academic ProbationThe School of Creative Industries recognizes that a student may have trouble adjusting to college workload or may require extra support in order to successfully complete an academic semester.
In certain cases, a student will be placed on Academic Probation.
Academic Probation consists of a set of terms and conditions that must be met by a student in order to remain in the program. In such cases, the Student Advisor or Program Coordinator will meet with the student and clearly outline on the Academic Probation form, the conditions under which the student will be permitted to remain in the program.
Eligibility for Academic Probation:
A student will be placed on probation if:
- They fail or drop two core courses including COMM1085. (Note: Policy regarding General Education courses falls under the School of Liberal Studies.)
- They achieve a program or sessional GPA of less than 2.5.
- They violate the Student Rights and Responsibilities policy.
- They violate the Academic Offences policy.
- They fail two core courses.
- They violate the Student Rights and Responsibilities policy.
- They violate the Academic Offences policy.
Once a student meets the terms and conditions of their Academic Probation, the probation status will be removed and the student will be permitted to complete the program under normal academic conditions.
A student who does not fulfill the terms of their academic probation will be discontinued from the program.
DiscontinuanceA student will be discontinued from the program if:
- Their academic achievement in any individual semester results in a GPA below 2.0.
- The student fails or drops three or more core courses (policy regarding General Education courses falls under the School of Liberal Studies).
- The student is on Academic Probation and fails an additional two core courses or fails to meet the terms of their probation.
Students who are discontinued from a program may not apply for re-admission to the program for at least one semester from the effective date of the discontinuance. Students are advised to meet with the Student Advisor, Program Coordinator and/or Chair to clarify any requirements or recommendations for re-admission to the program.
A discontinued student may find themselves re-admitted to a program that has undergone a change in curriculum. Should there be a change made to the program design or standards, the student is responsible for making up for the change. As a result, the student may be required to take additional course/s to meet the new requirements.
A discontinuance from one program does not affect a student's ability to apply to other programs at Conestoga or to complete General Education courses as a part-time studies student. See Program Transfer.
The School of Creative Industries expects students to commit to their studies and practice.
Voluntary withdrawals from the Program are supported from an academic perspective. Students may assess their own capabilities in meeting the academic requirements of a program and decide to withdraw. It is recommended that a student considering withdrawal speak to the Student Advisor or Program Coordinator before doing so.
Students need to carefully consider the impacts of withdrawing from the program or individual course. Program designs and graduating requirements are established on a per-year basis. As the program is integrated and continually evolving to meet industry needs, withdrawing from the program and returning at a future date may mean that students require additional credits, or need to retake courses that have updated curriculum. Some courses have co-requisites and/or pre-requisites which may be affected by dropping individual courses. Please review with your Student Advisor or Program Coordinator before dropping a course.
ProcedurePlease see the Program Withdrawal and Refund Procedure regarding refunds of fees.
A student must complete a Withdrawal Form to formally activate their withdrawal.
A student who formally withdraws (i.e. submits the Withdrawal Form) from the program/course, by the date for "drop without academic penalty", will receive a W on their transcript. A student who withdraws after this date will receive an F on their transcript.
A student who has withdrawn or been discontinued from the program may apply to be readmitted to their program after an absence of at least one semester. Prior to applying for program re-admittance, the student must meet with the Student Advisor and Program Coordinator and/or Chair to provide an update on their situation. If the student has completed courses online or via another postsecondary institution, official transcripts are required.
Re-admittance is not guaranteed and is dependent on:
- Meeting all program standards (or new standards/ new program design requirements put into place during the student's absence)
- Recommendation of the program team
- Previous program performance
- Competition with other candidates
- Availability of seats in the class
- And completion of all requirements or recommendations for re-admission
A student who has withdrawn or been discontinued from one School of Creative Industries program may wish to apply to another School of Creative Industries program or another Conestoga program.
A student who wishes to appeal grades or discontinuance should refer to the Academic Dispute Resolution and Appeal Policy and Procedure, clicking on "Academic Administration" and referring to both the "Academic Dispute Resolution Appeal Policy" and "Academic Dispute Resolution Appeal Procedure" documents.
For further information and assistance, please contact your Student Advisor.
Supplemental Evaluations (Clearance of Academic Deficiency)
As per college policy, the School of Creative Industries recognizes the requirement for supplemental assessments. The following establishes the standards associated with the clearance of an academic deficiency.
A student may be eligible for a Supplemental opportunity if:
- The student's final grade in a course that has a minimum passing grade of 55% is no less than 50%. If the course has a minimum passing grade of 60% or higher, the failing grade may be no more than 10% below that grade.
- The student has failed only ONE course in the semester.
- The student has passed at least one evaluation in the course
All the terms and conditions published by the college apply, see Clearance of Academic Deficiency Policy with the following stipulations as determined by the School of Creative Industries:
- Only one supplemental opportunity is given for a course in an academic semester.
- A student will undertake individual work as a Supplemental in a course where group work evaluations occur unless the academic deficiency is related to course learning outcomes requiring participation of a production team and/or demonstrations of teamwork skills which cannot be evaluated through individual work. In such cases, a Supplemental will not be granted; a student must meet the course learning outcomes.
- Supplemental evaluations will not be granted in instances where an academic offence has occurred. An academic incident resulting in a warning is not considered an academic offence.
- The final grade as a result of the supplemental will be automatic and is ineligible for appeal.
It is the student's responsibility to monitor their own academic standing and to submit a supplemental request should they meet the conditions above. Supplemental opportunities occur at the end of an academic semester once a final grade has been posted for a course. The student should confirm that they have failed only one course with the Program Coordinator or the Student Advisor before completing the Student Supplemental Form within 5 working days after the final grade is posted for the course. The Faculty member will determine the student's eligibility to clear an academic deficiency.
Upon approval, the Faculty member, in consultation with the program team, determines the terms and type of the supplemental evaluation, whether it is a supplemental test or exam (comprehensive or modified version of the final examination) or supplemental work (submission of a final paper, project, or assignment). All terms will be clearly documented on the Supplemental Authorization and Terms form. The student, Faculty member and Program Coordinator must sign the form and it is the student's responsibility to pay the Supplemental fee.
Upon completion of the Supplemental, the Faculty member will mark the Supplemental and submit a Grade Change form. If the student is successful, the original mark will be changed to the minimum passing grade for the course. If the student is not successful, the failed grade stands.
Students actively registered in cohort delivered programs who take longer than the designed program length of time to complete their studies are accountable for completing any new or additional courses that may result due to changes in the program of study. Unless otherwise stated, students registered in non-cohort delivered programs must complete the program of study within seven years of being admitted to the program.
GraduationStudents are eligible to graduate upon successful completion of all academic requirements in their program of study, including field placement or co-op term, where applicable. See Academic Responsibility.
Students are expected to respond to their invitation to graduate through their Student Portal. Convocation ceremonies are held in the spring and fall of each academic year.
Students, who take longer than the advertised program length, are responsible for completing any new or additional courses due to a program design change.
Students who complete their program after the scheduled completion date are required to fill out an Application to Graduate form and submit it with payment to the Registrar's Office.
Students who were discontinued or withdrew from a program and have subsequently been readmitted to a program, must complete the current program design in order to graduate.
Program TransferPrior to transferring to another Conestoga program, it is recommended that the student meet with the Student Advisor or Program Coordinator of the other program to confirm admission eligibility. Admission to a newly-chosen program by a student who has withdrawn or was discontinued from their original program will be dependent upon:
- meeting all newly-chosen program admission standards
- competition with other candidates
- availability of space in the program cohort
Students who decide to change programs and wish to transfer to a level beyond Level One of another program (i.e. advanced standing) may do so by completing an Advanced Standing Application Form and submitting it to the Registrar's Office.
If considering transferring to a program outside the school in which they are currently enrolled in, students may want to discuss options with a Career Advisor via the Conestoga Career Centre.
When a student moves from one Conestoga program to another, and where courses numbers/codes are identical or equivalent, automatic credit is given if passing grades are met. Please discuss with a Student Advisor to confirm course transferability.
Program Advisory Committees (PACs)
Program Advisory Committees (PACs) provide the necessary link between Conestoga and the community it serves. PACs operate in an advisory capacity to Conestoga administration with the objective to keep Conestoga responsive to current and future workforce needs, trends or opportunities in industry and the marketplace.
All post-secondary education programs of study at Conestoga, both full-time and part-time, which lead to an employment related credential, or are approved by the Ministry of Colleges and Universities (MCU), will be associated with a PAC, with the exception of apprenticeship and pre-apprenticeship programs. For any program not leading to an employment related credential, such as foundation programs, PACs are optional.
At the beginning of each year, the coordinator(s) of the program will ask for student volunteers. The coordinator(s) will select which student(s) will represent the program at PAC. Student attendees are important members of the PAC and are expected to be present at all meetings and are responsible for preparing and submitting a report based on guidelines provided by the program coordinator.
Students who participate in PACs will receive credit on their Co-Curricular Record (CCR) . Your CCR is an official document, complementary to your academic transcript, which recognizes and records learning that you have achieved through approved Co-curricular experiences at Conestoga.
Conestoga Students Inc. (CSI) and Conestoga College have agreed that a student has the right to invite a member of CSI to a student/ Faculty meeting, provided that 24 hours advance notice is given to Faculty. This advance notice will ensure that all parties will have an opportunity to adequately prepare for the meeting.
Student feedback is an essential component of our continuous improvement process at Conestoga and within the School of Creative Industries. Our opportunities for student feedback include:
Key Performance Indicators
All college programs in the province are evaluated using Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) through the Ministry of Colleges and Universities (MCU). This survey is conducted each academic year in select classes. Strategic goals to improve the programs are developed from these results. This data and other data specific to the campus and the program/school are collected so that Conestoga College can continually improve quality.
Student Appraisal of Teaching (SAT)
The Student Appraisal of Teaching (SAT) allows direct feedback from students on teaching for a particular course. Completion of the SAT form gives Faculty and Academic Managers valuable information to use for the improvement of teaching at Conestoga.
The SAT process occurs in the last third of each semester. Approximately one-quarter of the Faculty is appraised per term, and each faculty member has two courses selected by their academic Chair for appraisal. All Faculty have a SAT review at least once every two years. The SAT process is managed by the Office of Institutional Research and Planning using an online survey system specifically designed for course/teacher evaluations. After all student marks for the semester have been submitted, a summary of survey results goes to the Chair to be shared with the Faculty member. Continuing Education students may have an opportunity to complete a SAT form at the conclusion of each Continuing Education course.
Conestoga has more than 400 awards, bursaries, scholarships, and academic grants available to Conestoga students. These funds are made available to Conestoga students through the partnerships the College has established with local business and industry leaders. To be considered for an award, students should complete the application available through your Student Portal (under the "Financial" tab). Notifications and instructions to complete the application are sent to all full-time students' email accounts in the fall semester (Deadline: first Friday in October) and winter semester (Deadline: first Friday in February). Visit the Financial Aid and Student Awards Office on Conestoga's website.
Equipment and Facility Information
Equipment, Supplies, and Texts
Please see course outlines and instructional plans for details on course supplies and texts. Please also ensure that you have a computer that meets the appropriate Bring Your Own Device requirements for 3D Animation, available at BYOD Requirements.
Conestoga College's School of Creative Industries has a wide range of equipment and facilities available for sign-out by students and faculty. Some equipment is in use during class time. Classroom use of equipment takes priority over all other bookings. Specific guidelines about equipment use and safety will be discussed with you during your classes, studios, and labs. You should also be aware that, from time to time, equipment and facilities become unavailable. Please refer to the Equipment and Facilities Sign-Out and Use Policy contained in this Handbook for more information.
Equipment and Facilities Sign-Out and Use Policy
All currently registered School of Creative Industries students may borrow equipment and access facilities free of charge. Prior to borrowing any equipment, students must have completed the Health and Safety Training module, which is administered in the first two weeks of classes.
Equipment and Facilities Sign-Out is:- on a first-come, first-served basis;
- to be used for curriculum-based projects only;
- dependent on the program and/or course needs; and
- based on confirmation of adequate training in the use of the equipment.
Access to Equipment
Prior to sign-out, students must have received adequate training on the equipment by Faculty or a Technologist.
School of Creative Industries reserves the right to adjust the order of equipment sign-out requests as required. The Equipment Room Technician, School of Creative Industries Technologists, Faculty and staff reserve the right to query the student on correct and safe use of equipment and reserve the right to deny student access to equipment at their discretion.Priority
The priority for access to equipment and facilities is as follows:
- In-class instruction
- Other program delivery requirements
The School of Creative Industries does not provide or sell recording media (such as flash drives, portable hard drives or media cards) to students. Students must provide their own recording media. Please double check your program's requirements.
Reserving Equipment for Sign-Out
The duration of equipment rentals is now for 2 days. The equipment must be returned by 9:30 a.m. on the day it is due. If the equipment is signed out on a Friday it must be returned on Monday morning before 9:30 a.m. (or the next business day if Monday is a holiday). Under special circumstances equipment may be loaned for longer periods of time. This must be approved by Faculty and the Equipment Room Technician.
It is the responsibility of the student to never leave the equipment unattended, either on campus or at off-campus locations, as it could be stolen.
If the equipment is found unattended, a fee of $50 will be charged to the student and the sign-out will be immediately revoked.
Equipment signed out overnight must be always secured. Leaving equipment in a vehicle is not secure. Equipment must be brought indoors and secured in a residence or locked office.
It is the responsibility of the student to check the operation of all gear at the time of sign-out and to make sure that the correct gear and accessories (lights, batteries etc.) are included in the sign-out before leaving the Equipment Room.
Many projects that are assigned will be group projects. If the group wants to share responsibility for the equipment, everyone in the group should sign out the equipment.Equipment Room Hours of Operation
The Equipment Room is open to School of Creative Industries students from Monday to Friday. Specific hours will be posted at the beginning of each semester. Hours may change based upon School of Creative Industries program needs.
Late returns of equipment will cause delays for others who wish to sign-out that equipment and will adversely affect planned in-class instructions or other program delivery requirements. Extenuating circumstances must be communicated with your Program Coordinator.
Students who return equipment late will be charged a late fee of $25 per business day.
If the equipment is not returned within:
- 5 business days - OneCard/Fob access will be de-activated and the Chair notified.
- 10 business days - it will be considered a violation of the Student Rights and Responsibilities Policy, and Campus Security will be informed to take further action to retrieve the equipment and related costs.
- End of the semester - grades will be withheld and forward progress in the program will be suspended. Those who are not in good financial standing with the College are not eligible to graduate.
The Manager, Broadcast and Educational Technology will arrange for the equipment to be assessed and, in the case where repairs or replacement of parts or in whole is necessary, will request an invoice with a breakdown of charges. The School of Creative Industries Chair, Manager, Broadcast and Educational Technology, and Program Coordinator will review the incident as reported on the Equipment Report Form and will determine the amount owed by the student based on a fair assessment.
Should there be any resulting dispute, the School of Creative Industries will ask that an external Conestoga reviewer be brought in to review and determine the outcome.
If a student is assessed to have been fully responsible for the damage or loss of School of Creative Industries equipment, or if their maliciousness is deemed to have resulted in damage or loss of School equipment, or if leaving the equipment improperly secured resulted in damage or loss, then the student will be required to pay 100% of the replacement cost of the equipment.
If a student is assessed to have been partially responsible for the damage or loss of School of Creative Industries equipment, such as an unforeseen accident, or demonstrably inadequate in-class training on the proper use of equipment, then the student will be required to pay 50% of the replacement cost of the equipment.Equipment Faults, Damage or Loss
Damage (even if minor) to the facility or equipment, including operating faults or loss, must be immediately reported by the student. Send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org attaching a description of the issue or damage and photo of the issue, if possible.
A Student Responsibilities violation may result if the damage or loss is determined to be a result of malicious or negligent behaviour.
Technical equipment faults will not necessarily result in extensions to project deadlines. Please discuss with appropriate Faculty.Access to Facilities
Currently registered School of Creative Industries students using the facilities must comply with all health and safety regulations and procedures. Non-compliance will result in loss of after-hour and weekend access to facilities and may result in a Student Rights and Responsibilities violation.
Only School of Creative Industries students and their pre-approved talent may use the facilities. Security Officers have the right to ask others, and students who are violating the rules, to leave.
School of Creative Industries Technologists, Faculty and staff reserve the right to question the student on correct and safe use of the facility and equipment and reserve the right to deny student access to the facility and equipment at their discretion.Access Hours to Facilities
Access to all School of Creative Industries classrooms and facilities is valid during the semester(s) of study for currently registered students only.
In-class instruction and other program delivery requirements have priority access to facilities.
After hour access and weekend access requires that all School of Creative Industries students sign-in with Security.Access to the School of Creative Industries Facilities
Access to the School of Creative Industries facilities is gained through OneCard or Fob access. Fobs can be obtained from the Equipment Room with specific Faculty permission.
The student who signs out the Fob is fully responsible for the Fob during the length of time it is signed out and the student is fully responsible for the activities that take place in the School of Creative Industries facilities.
Lost Fobs must be reported to the Equipment Room technician ASAP so the Fob can be deactivated. The lost Fob replacement fee is $20.
All Fobs must be returned to the equipment room at the end of the academic year, or a $20 replacement fee per Fob will be levied, and grades will not be released.Reserving/Booking of Facilities
Students may access the Broadcast Studios, Photo Studios, and Audio Booths for rehearsals or assigned productions on evenings and weekends. Students will be provided the link to book online by Faculty and will be notified when access is permitted.
Student Responsibility – Facility Booking
The student who booked the facility takes responsibility for ensuring:
- the time frame of the booking is respected;
- the facility and the equipment are used in a safe, respectful, and professional manner; and
- the facility is returned to its original clean and organized state for the next scheduled booking.
On entering the facility, students are expected to check the following:
- the facility is in a clean and organized state;
- equipment appears to have been properly put away and undamaged by the previous user; and
- all equipment normally kept in the facility is accounted for.
Any issues should be documented (including photos, as appropriate) and reported to email@example.com. If a safety hazard or issue is encountered, the student should report the issue to Conestoga College Security immediately.Photo, Audio and Filming Guidelines
It is the student's responsibility to ensure that they have permission to record video or audio, or take photos of any and all businesses and/or individuals appearing in their productions.
Consent forms for such recording will be available on eConestoga.
It is imperative that every student review the School of Creative Industries Standard Filming Protocol in this Handbook. It provides clear guidelines as to the student's responsibilities when filming, and provides useful guidance regarding appropriate activity for photography and audio recording.
School of Creative Industries Standard Filming Protocol
As part of exercises and assignments within the School of Creative Industries, students may be asked to produce creative works on video.
Students are advised that they must avoid creating and filming any scenes which may cause a level of misunderstanding or distress to the public, the production team, or members of the school community. These include mock scenarios, unusual behaviour, or other disturbances to regular day-to-day activities that may cause members of the public to contact emergency or police services.
Therefore, the following scenarios are not permitted:
- the use of a real weapon
- the use of a prop weapon
- filming of nude scenes
In addition, where filming includes the following:
- car mounts
- filming on streets - action, people or cars in the streets
- people in water
- fistfights or other violent activity
- foot chases
- police cars and/or actors in police uniforms
- working with minors / children
- night shooting
- loud scenes in public, including mock protests
- blocking sidewalks
- use of special parking permits
- use of generators
- potentially illegal activity, such as drug deals or kidnapping
Students must review the scene and filming plan with their professor, and adhere to all industry protocols, which may involve obtaining appropriate permits for such activity. Please note that the above is not an exhaustive list, and reviewing your script and filming plan with your professor is highly recommended.
If permits are required, a written request must be sent in advance to the applicable municipal services. Applying for such permits may require approval from the School of Creative Industries, and/or proof of insurance. Students are therefore advised to request any such approvals from their professor and the Program Manager for the School of Creative Industries well in advance of the planned filming activity (a minimum of 5 business days).
It is also highly recommended, and in some municipalities required, that students go door-to-door in the affected filming area, and provide residences and businesses written notice of the date and time of filming. Please note that, in some instances, non-compliance with filming guidelines could result in the issuance of tickets to the students under municipal nuisance or other bylaws. Such fines will be the sole responsibility of the students.
Student Health & Safety
All students within the School of Creative Industries are required to complete the Health and Safety Training module provided by their program.
As members of the School of Creative Industries, students have a responsibility to keep the learning and workspaces safe. The Ontario Health and Safety (OHS) Act applies to all persons, including students who are on co-op work terms, unpaid field placements, and work study.
You have the right to refuse to do unsafe work and you have a duty to report unsafe conditions.
Health and Safety Regulations and Procedures
Signage is posted that identifies the health and safety requirements in each facility, such as protective clothing e.g. closed-toe shoes and safe practices such as No Food and Drink which must be strictly adhered to. Non-compliance will result in loss of access to equipment. The process for alerting Security and Emergency Contacts and Crisis Intervention charts are also posted.
In the case of injury or accident, contact Security IMMEDIATELY at ext. 3357 and request medical attention, indicating that a 911 call is required.
For all minor first aid treatment, please go directly to the Security Services (Room 2B10-6 on the Doon Campus). They are trained to assist in minor first aid.
Report all security concerns and threats IMMEDIATELY to the Security Office by calling ext. 3357.
In the case of lockdown, students and Faculty must follow the lockdown procedure available on the Conestoga Security Services webpage.
Academic Delivery Plan and College Hours
Academic Delivery Plan Fall 2022
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, Conestoga has developed an academic delivery plan for the Fall 2022 semester. The safety and well-being of our college community remains our highest priority. Our academic plans and decisions continue to be based on the advice of public health authorities.
Back on campus
We look forward to continuing to welcome students back in person and on campus for the fall term. There are three ways in which programs will be delivered:
Hybrid: You will be required to attend in-person classes at your assigned campus. Most class hours will be delivered in person, with a few hours delivered remote/online.
On campus: You will be required to attend in-person classes at your assigned campus. All class hours will be delivered in person.
Remote: Remote programs will be delivered fully online. There will be no in-person classes.
Details regarding classes and delivery formats will be provided in your program schedule (timetable).
Full-time courses at Conestoga are typically delivered Monday to Saturday, 8:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m. *
College-wide Polices and Procedures
Student Protection Acknowledgement
A Student Protection Acknowledgement confirmation pop-up will appear when a student logs into the Student Portal on a yearly basis. This will direct students to policies and procedures relevant to their academic responsibilities. All Conestoga College wide academic policies and procedures are listed on the college website under "About Conestoga", "Policies and Procedures".Students are advised to review and comply with all policies and procedures, including the following:
- Academic Dispute and Resolution Policy & Procedure
- Academic Offences Policy & Procedure
- Clearance of Academic Deficiency Policy & Procedure
- Convocation Procedure
- Co-operative Education Policy
- Discontinuance Procedure
- Evaluation of Student Learning Policy & Procedure
- Grading Procedure
- Program and Course Withdrawal and Refund Procedure/International Student Withdrawal and Refund Procedure
- Readmission Procedure
- Religious Holiday Policy & Procedure
- Student Expectations for Online Engagement
- Student Feedback Policy
- Student Fees Policy & Student Fee Invoicing and Payment Procedure
- Student Rights and Responsibilities Policy & Procedure
Students must follow all of the policies and procedures for Conestoga College and it is expected that faculty will accept, fulfil and enforce these standards.
General Education ElectivesStudents are required to complete General Education elective courses as part of their program requirements. General Education elective course requirements are listed at the bottom of the progress report, which is found on the Student Portal under My Courses. The progress report indicates the level/semester in which the course must be taken. Students are responsible for adding General Education electives into their schedule for the designated semester. Eligible courses are posted each semester by the School of Interdisciplinary Studies on the College's elective website. For more information and to view the current elective course offerings, visit https://www.conestogac.on.ca/electives/diploma. Questions regarding General Education electives can be directed to the School of Interdisciplinary Studies: firstname.lastname@example.org
Program courses may use web-based services with data centres outside of Canada. Students may be expected to complete assessments where information is transmitted outside of Canada. Students who do not wish to submit their information to other countries have the right to opt-out. It is the responsibility of the student to notify the instructor if they, in the first week of term or at the time assignment details are provided, wish to submit an alternate assignment.
Course examinations may be administered through a remote proctoring service to assure academic integrity. Ensure that you meet the system requirements that will allow the recording of your computer screen, webcam, and microphone.
Attendance at Evaluations
Working Together to Plan Your Success
Your success matters! As an emerging professional, it is important that you demonstrate the same professional attitude to your program that you will be required to demonstrate to your future workplace. Regular, punctual attendance, and active participation in scheduled classes, field and clinical placements, labs and any on-campus and off-campus activities scheduled by your program will help you to understand and master the learning complexities of your program.
If extenuating, unplanned circumstances require you to miss a class, please note that it is your responsibility to follow up with individual faculty members and to acquire any missed information.
Attendance for Evaluations
Evaluations are critical components of each course and your overall success in your program. An evaluation is defined as a test, exam, presentation or any other formal assessment that contributes to your course mark that requires your presence, in class or on-line. Please note that in many programs across the College, every field placement, clinical day, and lab/shop day is considered crucial to your overall learning and success and the expectation is that you attend. If you are in a program that includes field or clinical placements, labs/shops, or any other on or off campus activities, it is essential that you discuss attendance requirements with your program faculty in order to understand expectations and consequences.
Your attendance for all evaluations is a requirement. If there is a concerning pattern of absence from evaluations across your program, you may be asked to meet with the Program Coordinator and/or Student Advisor to discuss strategies for success.
While circumstances such as religious holidays and academic accommodations may necessitate rescheduling of evaluations and will be accommodated, please note that there will be no special arrangements made for rescheduling evaluations due to personal conflicts such as work or vacation plans.
In order to facilitate a smooth implementation for all scheduled evaluations, both you and your program faculty have responsibilities which are listed below:
- To communicate all course obligations to you at the beginning of each semester through the Instructional Plan, including evaluation and presentation dates.
- To communicate, in writing, any unplanned extenuating circumstances involving the college, the program or the faculty members that may require changes to the course schedule.
- To provide alternative evaluation arrangements for missed evaluations/work due to recognized religious holidays as defined by the College Employer Council and documented accommodations through the Accessibility Office.
- To accept alternative evaluation requests in good faith and examine based on the unique circumstances and students' individual needs.
- To facilitate alternative evaluation arrangements as described below.
- To be informed about all course obligations and due dates.
- To inform your faculty member in writing of the need to reschedule evaluations due to a religious holiday as defined by the College Employer Council.
- If you have to be absent from any scheduled evaluation, report your absence on the Student Portal using the procedure below. You must do this prior to the start of the evaluation or risk receiving a mark of zero.
How to Report Absences on the Student Portal
- Log into the Student Portal and click on the 'Absence tab'.
- Indicate whether or not there is an assessment scheduled on that day by clicking 'Yes or No', as well as the reason for the absence (illness or other).
- Click 'Continue' to report the absence.
- Click 'I agree' to confirm the absence.
- You will receive a confirmation email that your absence has been recorded.
Important! Please note the following:
- The earliest you can record an absence for a particular day, is after 8:00 p.m. the day before. You must report each day you are absent.
- The Absence Recording System will show you as being absent for the day, starting from the time that you recorded the absence. For example, if you record your absence on a specific day at 11:00 a.m., the system will show you as being absent for all classes starting after 11:00 a.m. that day.
- If you are going to be present for any other classes on the day for which you recorded an absence, please let the faculty member know by attending or following up by eConestoga or college email.
- When you return to campus, make eConestoga or email contact immediately with the faculty member associated with the evaluation you missed in order to arrange appropriate follow up.
Valid Absence from Scheduled Evaluations Less than 20%
Conestoga recognizes that unexpected circumstances such as brief illness do arise during the semester and that a visit to a health practitioner may not be necessary. A valid absence from a scheduled evaluation worth less than 20% of the final grade which is not documented through the Accessibility Office or previously arranged due to religious holidays, will be accommodated once per course during the semester, subject to proper communication as described in the Student Responsibilities section above. If the evaluation cannot be rescheduled, (for example an experiential activity, lab or participation in a group presentation) reallocation of marks to another evaluation item will be determined by faculty and communicated to student via email to their eConestoga or college email address, or documented on an interview record and signed off by both faculty member and student.
Valid Absence from Scheduled Evaluations 20% or More
Absence from scheduled evaluations worth 20% or more of the final grade that are not documented through the Accessibility Office or arranged due to religious holidays are subject to proper communication as described in the Student Responsibilities section above.
Alternative Evaluation Arrangements
- Faculty members will determine alternative evaluation arrangements as appropriate. During the pandemic, on-campus Test Centres will be closed.
- Students will complete any necessary forms.
- Students are required to complete the alternative evaluation as scheduled. If an evaluation cannot be rescheduled (for example an experiential activity or participation in a group presentation) reallocation of marks will be determined by faculty and communicated to student via eConestoga or college email or documented on an interview record and signed off by both faculty member and student.
Program Handbook Revision Log
June 2020 - all sections updated
July 2021 - select sections updated
June 2022- select sections updated
Conestoga's Accessible Learning services provide support for students with permanent and temporary disabilities who feel they are encountering barriers to learning. They work with students to understand the impact of a disability in the college environment and will help develop a success plan that considers student goals and required academic accommodations. Accessible Learning will also communicate necessary accommodations to professors on behalf of the student.
To consult with an Accessibility Advisor about accommodations please make an appointment by emailing email@example.com or calling 519-748-5220 ext. 3232.
Exceptions for non-accessibility focused issues need to be consulted on with your professor. Final approval for exceptions unrelated to academic accommodations rests with the program chair.